The purpose of the R&D statistics is to present the scope of research and experimental development undertaken within the Danish business sector. The aim is to secure detailed statistical information on the R&D activities.
The total intramural expenditure is often used as an economic indicator to gauge the national innovation systems. The R&D expenditures are used as input to the "3 per cent objective", the EU goal of spending 3 per cent of GDP on R&D. 2 per cent in the business enterprise sector and 1 per cent in the Government-, Higher Education, and Private-Non-Profit sectors. R&D expenditure is also an indicator used for the Innovation Union Scoreboard (IUS). Besides R&D expenditure information on R&D activities are published as numbers of R&D personnel and broken down on regions, size class and industry.
The statistics are compiled in accordance with definitions and guidelines in the OECD's Frascati Manual.
The following indicators are measured:
Additional variables in odd years - R&D personnel head counts and full time equivalent distributed by sex - intramural R&D expenditure by source of funds - extramural R&D expenditure by source of funds - R&D expenditures distributed - by area - by Field of Science - by type of R & D - by product groups - income from R&D service - Cooperation in R&D activities - Sales of R&D services - Budget for the following year as a voluntary question
The statistics are broken down on industry (Nace rev.2), size class and regions.
Industry (NACE rev.2), Size class based on number of employees (in FTE).
Size class of enterprise, based on number of full-time equivalents by the following size classes:
Type of enterprise
Type of staff
Geographically the statistics is distributed by regions.
The statistics covers all R&D performing units in the business enterprise sector or enterprises from other sectors acting under market conditions. Also enterprises from the enterprise sector not acting under market conditions are allocated to the Private-Non-Profit sector.
Research and Development: Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge.
The five criteria for identifying R&D: To be aimed at new findings (novel) To be based on original, not obvious, concepts and hypotheses (creative) To be uncertain about the final outcome (uncertain) To be planned and budgeted (systematic) To lead to results that could be possibly reproduced (transferable and/or reproducible) There are three types of R&D: 1) Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. 2) Applied research is original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. 3)Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.
The statistical unit is the enterprise.
The survey frame is based on a extract from the National Business Register.
The survey covers Denmark.
Not relevant for these statistics.
R&D-expenditures are in 1000 DKK. R&D-personnel in headcount (HC) and full time equivalents (FTE).
The statistics is compiled annually.
From 2007 the statistics is mandatory and produced in accordance with section 8 of the Act on Statistics Denmark (Consolidated act No 599 of 22 June 2000. Up to and including the year 2006 the survey was voluntary. Data is collected in accordance with Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 2003 concerning the production and development of Community statistics on science and technology and Commission Regulation (EC) No 995/2012 implementing Decision No 1608/2003/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards statistics on science and technology.
More information can be found on https://www.dst.dk/fui